Bei RNA- Viren muss die RNA zuvor mittels reverser Transkriptase in DNA umgeschrieben werden. Bei Zellteilungen wird die eingebaute genetische Information des Virus weitergegeben. Dabei entsteht ein zytopathischer Effekt.
Einen Grenzfall bilden Viren , die im lytischen Zyklus ihre Wirtszelle erhalten, da sie sich direkt an die Zellmembran anlagern und unter . A virus floating around an enclosed space with possible host cells faces a large hurdle, the thermodynamics of diffusion.
Because neutrally charged objects do not naturally clump around each other, the virus must find a way to move even near a host cell. Anheftung von Viren an die Oberfläche von Zellen. Sie beruht auf spezifischen Wechselwirkungen zwischen äußeren Strukturen der Viruspartikel und Rezeptoren auf der Oberfläche der . Their work demonstrates the importance of electrostatic interactions in adsorption.
Previous investigators (11) have suggested that Van der Waals interactions might be involved in virus adsorption. This investigation has shown that these interactions play a dominant role, vary markedly between different substances, and can . A number of experiments were performed on the adsorption of influenza hemagglutinins on chicken red blood cells, from which the following conclusions were drawn:— 1. When chicken red blood cells and preparations of influenza viruses were mixed together, the influenza hemagglutinins present were rapidly adsorbed .
In previous studies, the researchers concluded that addition of aluminum ions (or magnesium ions) enhanced viral adsorption to microporous filters, and from these . The purpose of this study was to provide a clearer understanding of virus adsorption , focusing specifically on the role of electrostatic interactions between virus particles and adsorbent surfaces. The adsorption of poliovirus reovirus types and and coliphages MS-and Tto colloidal silica synthetically modified to carry . Viruses were characterized by their adsorption to DEAE-Sepharose or by their elution from octyl-Sepharose by using buffered solutions of sodium chloride with different ionic strengths. Viruses whose adsorption to DEAE-Sepharose was reduced most rapidly by an increase in the sodium chloride concentration were . This chapter highlights how the current understanding of the mechanisms and factors influencing virus adsorption can be used to interpret and control virus behavior in the environment. An understanding of factors controlling the interaction has already led to new and improved methods for the concentration of viruses from . The latter effects may result in greater virus survival and mobility in soils. As noted earlier, the primary mechanism of virus removal in soil is by adsorption of viruses onto soil particles.
Virus adsorption is greatly affected by the pH of the soil -water system. This effect is due primarily to the amphoteric nature of the protein . For viruses in group I (two coxsackie Bviruses, four echo viruses, OX 17 and MS2), pH was an important factor affecting virus adsorption to soil. However, for viruses in group II (polio echo coxsackie B and phages Tand T2) . The inhibitory action of the λ-carrageenan, an heparan sulfate (HS)-imitative compoun was exerted by a dual interference with virus adsorption and internalization of nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. Although virus particles may enter the cell when compound was added after DENV-adsorption, . The types of interactions possible between an adsorbed molecule and a solid surface range from weak nonpolar van der Waals forces to strong .
Hierbei handelt es sich um eine Rezeptor-vermittelte Anbindung an die Wirtszelle. Spezifische Rezeptoren der Wirtszelle werden von den Viren benutzt um über passende Kapsidproteine die Adhäsion zu bewerkstelligen. Die Blockierung entweder der zellulären Rezeptoren oder der Kapsidproteine stellt eine . In experiments with strains of poliovirus, reovirus, echovirus, and Coxsackievirus, overgrowth with exopolymer-forming bacteria reduced virus adsorption to mineral surfaces. Adsorption of viruses to soil: impact of anaerobic treatment. In a soil series, virus adsorption.
There are many types of pili and each bacterial virus binds specifically to a precise type. Some filamentous viruses like bacteriophage fd adsorb onto the tip of F-pili and enter the cell at the pili basal pore. Other filamentous phages can target I-pili (phage If1), N-pili (phage IKe), or type IV pili (e.g. bacteriophages Pfand Pf3) . Specificity of virus adsorption to clay minerals.
Competitive adsorption studies indicated that reovirus type and coliphage TI did not share common adsorption sites on kaolinite and montmorillonite.